Effective Interventions

Effective Interventions

High Impact Prevention

RESPECT is an individual-level, client-focused, HIV prevention intervention, consisting of two brief interactive counseling sessions. The intervention is based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and Social Cognitive Theory. The provider follows a structured protocol (counselor cards) to engage in an interactive conversation with the client to: 1) determine what behaviors place the client at risk for HIV (or STDs); 2) use a “teachable moment” to increase the client’s concern about his/her personal HIV risk; and 3) develop a strategy to reduce identified risks.

The RESPECT intervention is designed to support risk reduction behaviors by increasing the client’s perception of his/her personal risks and by emphasizing incremental risk-reduction strategies. Core elements of the intervention are to conduct one-on-one counseling using the RESPECT protocol, utilize a “teachable moment” to motivate clients to change risk-taking behaviors, explore circumstances and context of a recent risk behavior to increase perception of susceptibility, negotiate an achievable step which supports the larger risk reduction goal, and implement and maintain quality assurance procedures. The intervention uses a structured protocol that guides the provider/counselor throughout the sessions. This protocol also helps address barriers to risk reduction and validate previous attempts made by the client.

To learn more about RESPECT, review the RESPECT FACT SHEET.  

CDC's Important Update on RESPECT Trainings

Attention New CDC Grantees: CDC's Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) no longer offers face to face training or capacity building assistance for the RESPECT program. As an alternative, health professionals and individuals interested in implementing the RESPECT program are encouraged to register for CDC's e-Learning modules for RESPECT. See the section below "Become a RESPECT facilitator online" to learn more. 
Some health departments or other funders may continue to support implementation of the RESPECT program. Therefore, implementation materials and RESPECT resources will remain available for download from this site. You may also request information on how to contact RESPECT master trainers to make individual arrangements to obtain training. All costs associated with receiving RESPECT training will be paid by the requesting agency or individual. To request trainer information, please contact interventions@danya.com

Become a RESPECT facilitator online!

CDC's RESPECT e-Learning course is great for both new and experienced RESPECT facilitators. The course has four modules and takes approximately 2 hrs and 40 minutes to complete:

  • Module 1: Purpose and Goals of RESPECT and Theories and Principles of RESPECT
  • Module 2: Core Elements, Key Concepts and Protocol Overview
  • Module 3: Conducting a RESPECT Session "Video of Mock Session"
  • Module 4: Strategies for Implementing with Client Case Studies

Register for the RESPECT eLearning Course
Login to Complete the RESPECT eLearning Course 

Research and Development

Kamb, M.L., Fishbein, M., Douglas , J.M., Rhodes , F., Rogers , J., Bolan, G., Zenilman, J., Hoxworth, T., Malotte, K., Iatesta, M., Kent, C., Lentz, A., Graziano, S., Beyers, R.H., Peterman, T.A., for the Project RESPECT Study Group. (1998). Efficacy of Risk-Reduction Counseling to Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280:1161-67 .

More Info

RESPECT Core Elements

  • Conduct one-on-one counseling, using the RESPECT protocol prompts
  • Utilize a “teachable moment” to motivate clients to change risk-taking behaviors
  • Explore circumstances and context of a recent risk behavior to increase perception of susceptibility
  • Negotiate an achievable step which supports the larger risk reduction goal
  • Implement and maintain quality assurance procedures

The materials on this site are designed for HIV/AIDS prevention with persons at risk for acquiring or transmitting HIV. They are meant to be resources used by HIV prevention providers such as health departments and community-based organizations so as to provide the best evidence-based HIV prevention services. These materials are not meant for the general public. They are not meant for children. They are not school-based HIV prevention strategies.