Effective Interventions

Effective Interventions

High Impact Prevention

Focus on Youth (FOY) is a community-based, eight session group intervention that provides youth with the skills and knowledge they need to protect themselves from HIV and other STDs. The curriculum, founded on the Protection Motivation Theory, uses fun, interactive activities such as games, role plays and discussions to convey prevention knowledge and skills.

Focus on Youth with ImpactFOY targets African American youth, ages 12-15. There is also a short component for parents, Informed Parents and Children Together (ImPACT), that assists them in areas such as parental monitoring and effective communication.

Important CDC Update: 

The CDC’s strategy for High Impact HIV Prevention involves prioritizing and implementing an optimal combination of cost-effective, scalable interventions based on the current state of the science.  This shift should help improve the effectiveness of HIV prevention efforts, reduce HIV incidence, and ultimately increase the possibility of achieving an AIDS-free America.  In its ongoing effort to align HIV prevention resources with current surveillance data and this strategy, the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) at CDC will not offer trainings or capacity building assistance on the following evidence-based interventions (EBIs): AIM, ¡Cuídate!, Focus on Youth, MIP, Nia, RAPP, Safety Counts, SHIELD, SIHLE, SISTA, Street Smart, RESPECT and VOICES/VOCES (except when used with MSM). The Division also will not offer trainings or capacity building assistance on some new EBIs, such as Healthy Love. Health departments or other funders may continue to support implementation of these EBIs, and the implementation materials for all these interventions will remain on this site and be available for download. If you have additional questions about this issue, please contact interventions@danya.com.

CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health (DRH) will provide support to their grantees on AIM, ¡Cuídate!, and SIHLE. For further information on DRH’s efforts, please contact Trisha Mueller at czj5@cdc.gov

ETR Associates continues a body of work related to Focus on Youth. For further information, please contact Nancy Gonzalez-Caro at 1.800.325.3048 Ext. 237 or email gonn@etr.org. You may ask about contracting with ETR to provide fee-for-service training on this curriculum. Through their training technical assistance services, ETR is ready to help you strengthen and implement your program(s) with fidelity by providing the full range of program implementation and monitoring services, including training, adaptation and evaluation. if you are interested in receiving these services from ETR, please complete the Training and Technical Assistance Request Form.

Research and Development

Galbraith J, Ricardo I, Stanton B, Black M, Feigelman S, Kaljee L. Challenges and rewards of involving community in research: An overview of the "Focus on Kids" AIDS-prevention program. Health Education Quarterly 1996; 23: 383-394.

Li X, Stanton B, Feigelman S, Galbraith J. Three-year cumulative risk behaviors among African American adolescents participating in a trail of an HIV -risk reduction intervention. Journal of the National Medical Association 20002;94:784-796.

Stanton B, Cole M, Galbraith J, Li X, Pendleton S, Cottrel L, Marshall S, Wu Y, Kaljee L. A randomized trial of a parent intervention: Parents can make a difference in long-term adolescent risk behaviors, perceptions and knowledge. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2004;158:947-955.

Stanton B, Fang X, Li X. Feigelman S, Galbraith J, Ricardo I. Evolution of risk behaviors over two years among a cohort of urban African-American adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1996;25:52-61.

Stanton B, Fitzgerald A, Li X, Shipena H, Ricardo I, Galbraith J, Terreri N, Strijdom J, Hangula-Ndlovu V, Kahihuata J. HIV risk behaviors, intentions and perceptions among Namibian youth as assessed by a theory-based questionnaire. AIDS Education and Prevention 1999;11:132-149.

Stanton B, Li X, Ricardo I, Galbraith J, Feigelman S, Kaljee L. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of an AIDS prevention program for low-income African-American youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1996; 150:363-372.

Wu Y, Stanton B, Galbraith J, Kaljee L, Cottrell L, Li X, Harris CV, D'Alessandri D, Burns JM. Sustaining and broadening intervention impact: A randomized controlled trial of three adolescent risk reduction intervention approaches. Pediatrics 2003;111 (1):e32-8.

Program Review Panel Information

The CDC requires all CDC-funded agencies using the Focus on Youth with ImPACT intervention to identify, or establish, and utilize a Program Review Panel and complete Form 0.1113 to document this activity. The intervention researchers and developers are not involved in this activity. This is a CDC requirement for their grantees, and all questions in this regard should be directed to your agency's CDC Project Officer or to the health department funding your agency's implementation of the intervention.

The Program Review Panel guidelines, instructions for completion of Form 0.113, and the form itself are available under the Related Linkssection of this website.

CDC Policy on Youth Peer Outreach Workers

CDC funded (directly or indirectly) agencies using youth (either paid or volunteer) in program outreach activities, it is very important that said organizations use caution and judgement in the venues/situations where youth workers are placed. Agencies should give careful consideration to the "age appropriateness" of the activity or venue. Additionally, agencies should comply with all relevant laws and regulations regarding entrance into adult establishments/environments. Laws and curfews should be clearly outlined in required safety protocols developed and implemented by agencies directly and indirectly funded by CDC.

If you have specific questions, please contact your CDC project officer.

More Info

FOY Core Elements

  • Delivering intervention to youth in community-based settings.
  • Using two skilled facilitators to implement the youth group.
  • Using "social networks" to strengthen peer support.
  • Using culturally appropriate interactive activities proven as effective learning strategies to help youth capture the important constructs in the theory.
  • Including a "family tree" to contextualize and personalize abstract concepts e.g., decision-making and risk assessment.
  • Enabling participants to learn and practice a decision making model.
  • Training participants in assertive communication and refusal skills related to negotiation of abstinence or safer sex behaviors.
  • Teaching proper condom use skills.
  • Involvement of the youth's parents or other significant adults in the intervention.

ImPACT Core Elements

  • Delivering intervention one on one to parent/guardian and youth in the home or other community-based setting.
  • Using a facilitator whom parents find credible.
  • Delivering intervention prior to youth beginning FOY or no later than Session 3.
  • Use of an entertaining documentary that shows the challenges and importance of parents monitoring and talking to their children ages 12-15 about sex, abstinence, STDs, HIV and condoms.
  • Facilitator must sit down and watch the video with the parent/guardian and youth. Youth and parent/guardian must watch the video together.
  • Enabling parent/guardian and youth to learn and practice communication skills.
  • Teaching parent/guardian and youth proper condom use skills.
  • Distributing and guiding parent/guardian and youth through a Resource Guide that discusses communication, parental monitoring, proper condom use and STD/HIV among young African Americans.

The materials on this site are designed for HIV/AIDS prevention with persons at risk for acquiring or transmitting HIV. They are meant to be resources used by HIV prevention providers such as health departments and community-based organizations so as to provide the best evidence-based HIV prevention services. These materials are not meant for the general public. They are not meant for children. They are not school-based HIV prevention strategies.