Risk Reduction Interventions that Support the Use of Condoms
EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS SUPPORTING CONDOM AVAILIABILITY, ACCESSIBILITY, AND/OR ACCEPTABILITY
Interventions included in the CDC’s Disseminating Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) program containing elements aimed at increasing the availability, accessibility, and acceptability of condoms. NOTE: Since the intent of all DEBI interventions is HIV prevention, all promote acceptance of condom usage directly or indirectly (through promotion of risk reduction).
Intervention that can be used to target a variety of populations; includes identification of community needs and potential target populations, creation of role model stories from individuals who have made positive HIV/STD behavior change, and distribution of these role model stories and condoms by peer advocates.
Effective intervention for heterosexual couples, in which communication, problem-solving, and negotiation skills are learned through videos, discussion, coaching, goal setting, and practice; includes condom demonstrations, and condoms are given out at each session.
Intervention targeting Latino youth, ages 13-18, which uses interactive games, role playing, video, music, mini-lectures, and group discussion to teach HIV/AIDS information, condom negotiation, and correct condom use skills.
Effective behavioral intervention designed by and for black MSM to promote social norms of condom use through endorsement by trained opinion leaders, and provide assistance in recognizing and addressing risk-related racial and sexual bias in order to increase self-worth.
Intervention designed to teach African American youth (12-15 years of age) the knowledge and skills necessary to protect themselves from HIV and other STDs; encourages parent involvement. Both youth and parent sessions teach condom use skills.
Intervention for HIV positive men and women that has been shown to increase self-efficacy for suggesting condom use with new partners and decrease risky sexual behavior through provision of personal feedback reports (to motivate change of risky behaviors and continuance of protective behaviors) and movie clips of disclosure and risk reduction scenarios, including a condom demonstration (to stimulate discussion and role plays).
Effective intervention designed for MSM of color who may or may not identify as gay; addresses factors that influence their behavior, including cultural, social, and religious norms, interactions between HIV and other STDs, and sexual relationship dynamics, and seeks to increase skills, self-efficacy, and intentions with regard to protective behaviors.
Cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to decrease risky sexual and drug use behaviors in IDUs through individualized counseling and case management; participants provided with safety kits, which include condoms. Mpowerment
Mpowerment is a multi-system, multi-level intervention designed to reduce HIV risk and improve the health and well-being of young gay and bisexual men. The intervention addresses the social, structural, and behavioral determinants that contribute to HIV risk through a combination of individual, group, and community activities. Condom distribution is an essential component of the intervention's formal outreach activities, which take place in community spaces frequented by young gay men. The intervention also seeks to change social norms in the communities in which it operates, which includes but is not limited to efforts to promote the acceptability of condom use during sexual encounters.
Effective intervention for heterosexual African American men which aims to educate them about HIV/AIDS and its effect on their community, increase motivation to reduce risks, and teach new skills to protect themselves and others by promoting condom use and increased intentions to use condoms.
Effective behavioral intervention which provides HIV prevention activities for people in correctional settings, both pre- and post-release; the offer of condoms is part of all post-release sessions.
Community mobilization program aimed at reducing risk for HIV and unintended pregnancy in women by increasing condom use through peer-led activities, e.g. outreach with brochures and conversations, referrals, condom distribution, and safer sex discussions/presentations.
Effective intervention that uses “brief” and “enhanced” versions to target heterosexual persons (14+ years) attending STD clinics. First session is common to both versions and seeks to enhance the client’s perception of risk, assess their risk behaviors, and negotiate a plan for reducing risk. In the “enhanced” version, session 2 emphasizes increasing condom use self-efficacy; session 3 provides HIV test results and focused discussion on condom attitudes; session 4 focuses on perception of norms regarding condom use. Each session ends with a goal-setting exercise and encouragement of condom use as a long-term risk-reduction goal.
Intervention which aims to reduce sexual and drug use risk behaviors among active injection and non-injection drug users not currently in treatment; condom distribution can be part of the client follow-up in the community.
Network-based intervention that trains current and former drug users to be peer educators. Participants are trained in issues related to risk reduction in both sexual and drug use behaviors, including condom use and acceptability; outreach within their networks can include condom distribution.
Intervention aimed at HIV sexual risk behavior reduction among sexually active, African American teenage females, ages 14-18, by enhancing awareness of HIV risk reduction strategies such as abstaining from sex, using condoms consistently, and having fewer sex partners.
Effective intervention designed to increase condom use among African American women through instruction and skill building in effective condom use, information on the variety of condoms, condom negotiation, and distribution of condoms.
Intervention which aims to help youth (can be used for runaway and homeless youth), ages 11-18, increase safer sexual behaviors and reduce substance use, by improving social, coping, and problem-solving skills; the third session focuses on condom use.
Single-session effective behavioral intervention targeting African Americans and Latinos attending STD clinics. Core elements focus on condom negotiation, overcoming barriers to condom use, education about different types of condoms and their features, and distributing condoms that best meet each participant’s needs.
Effective intervention targeting women living with HIV; aims include enhancing awareness of STD transmission and HIV re-infection risk behaviors, teaching communication skills for negotiating safe sex, and reinforcing proper and consistent condom use.