The Self-Help in Eliminating Life-threatening Diseases (SHIELD) intervention is based on several theories; Social Cognitive Theory, Social Identity Theory, Cognitive Dissonance (or inconsistency) Theory, and Social Influence Theory. In the SHIELD model of HIV prevention, one individual (a Peer Educator) is taught strategies to reduce HIV risk associated with drug use and sex behavior. In addition, Peer Educators are taught effective communication skills in order to talk with people in their social networks about HIV prevention information. Peer Educators are trained to be leaders within their social networks and communities. They use their communication skills to have conversations about prevention to help stop the spread of HIV.
The target population for the SHIELD intervention is male and female adults (18 years older) who are current or former drug users who interact with other drug users. The intervention can be delivered with clients who are HIV positive and HIV-negative.
Important CDC Update:
The CDC’s strategy for High Impact HIV Prevention involves prioritizing and implementing an optimal combination of cost-effective, scalable interventions based on the current state of the science. This shift should help improve the effectiveness of HIV prevention efforts, reduce HIV incidence, and ultimately increase the possibility of achieving an AIDS-free America. In its ongoing effort to align HIV prevention resources with current surveillance data and this strategy, the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) at CDC will not offer trainings or capacity building assistance on the following evidence-based interventions (EBIs): AIM, ¡Cuídate!, Focus on Youth, MIP, Nia, RAPP, Safety Counts, SHIELD, SIHLE, SISTA, Street Smart, RESPECT and VOICES/VOCES (except when used with MSM). The Division also will not offer trainings or capacity building assistance on some new EBIs, such as Healthy Love. Health departments or other funders may continue to support implementation of these EBIs, and the implementation materials for all these interventions will remain on this site and be available for download. If you have additional questions about this issue, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health (DRH) will provide support to their grantees on AIM, ¡Cuídate!, and SIHLE. For further information on DRH’s efforts, please contact Trisha Mueller at email@example.com.
How to request SHIELD training and technical assistance
As listed above, CDC no longer offers training or capacity building for SHIELD. If SHIELD training is desired, contact any of the SHIELD trainers within the following organizations listed below to make individual arrangements to obtain training. You are welcome also contact the original researchers. All costs associated with receiving SHIELD training will be paid by the requesting agency or individual. Here's a printer friendly version of the SHIELD Master Trainer List
Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF)
Nickie Bazell, MPH
Capacity for Health Project
450 Sutter Street, Suite 600
San Francisco, CA 94108
Direct: (415) 568-3307
Main: (415) 954-9988
Harm Reduction Coalition (HRC)
Narelle Ellendon, RN
Director of Capacity Building Services
22 West 27th Street, 5th Floor
New York, NY 10001
Direct: (212) 213-6376, ext. 16
Main: (212) 213-6376
JSI Research & Training
Juli Powers, MPH
437 Memorial Drive SE, Suite A11
Atlanta, GA 30312
Direct: (404) 460-4794
To learn more about SHIELD research, contact:
Carl A. Latkin, Ph.D.
Phone: (410) 955-3972
Melissa A. Davey-Rothwell, Ph.D., MPH, CHES
Phone: (410) 614-5854
Research and Development for SHIELD
Latkin, CA, Sherman, S, & Knowlton, A. (2003). HIV prevention among drug users: Outcome of a network-oriented peer outreach intervention. Health Psychology, 22(4), 332-339.
Program Review Panel Information
The CDC requires all CDC-funded agencies using the SHIELD intervention to identify, or establish, and utilize a Program Review Panel and complete Form 0.1113 to document this activity. The intervention researchers and developers are not involved in this activity. This is a CDC requirement for their grantees, and all questions in this regard should be directed to your agency's CDC Project Officer or to the health department funding your agency's implementation of the intervention.
The Program Review Panel guidelines, instructions for completion of Form 0.113, and the form itself are available under the Related Links section of this website.
CDC Policy on Youth Peer Outreach Workers
CDC funded (directly or indirectly) agencies using youth (either paid or volunteer) in program outreach activities need to use caution and judgment in the venues/situations where youth workers are placed. Agencies should give careful consideration to the "age appropriateness" of the activity or venue. Additionally, agencies should comply with all relevant laws and regulations regarding entrance into adult establishments/environments. Laws and curfews should be clearly outlined in required safety protocols developed and implemented by agencies directly and indirectly funded by CDC.
If you have specific questions, please contact your CDC project officer.